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突破新SAT閱讀文獻的三個維度

2017-11-15 10:22     供稿單位: 新航道     原創作者:張強    

出國英語考試有哪些 雅思6.5是什么水平 雅思閱讀評分標準 托福閱讀評分標準 雅思和托福的區別

新SAT閱讀自2016年3月開考至今,它的考查形式、考點與套路越來越清晰的呈現在大家面前。

 

在社科、自然、對比文、文獻及小說這5篇文章中,大部分同學反映難度的其實還是在文獻文章,很多場次中文獻的難度要大于小說。如何更好的把握文獻的主題及結構,有限的時間內做對更多的題目就成為當務之急。鑒于文獻的難度及復雜性,本文簡單從三個維度對其進行剖析。

 

2300多年前的古希臘哲學家Aristotle(亞里斯多德)在他的《雄辯的藝術》(The Art of Rhetoric)中就曾經論述到:一次成功的演說只有包含了“pathos, ethos and logos”這三方面才會有效的去說服別人。

 

古希臘能夠成為哲學的發源地與這三個詞也不無關系。閱讀中文獻文章就性質來說都是議論文,有些文章直接選自美國歷史上名人政要的演講,而演講是最能明顯體現這三個方面的。

 

1 、Pathos(appeal to emotion)

 

主要指情感上的影響力,單調的數據或高調的論述很多時候并不足以說服人,“情感共鳴(empathy)”在好的文章或演說中起至關重要的作用,同樣的內容,如果用生動精彩的語言傳遞出去,打動人心引起共鳴,這種效果是截然不同的。

 

例子

  

The colors of our skins, the languages of our cultural and native origins, the lack of formal education, the exclusion from the democratic process, the numbers of our men slain in recent wars-all these burdens generation after generation have sought to demoralize us, to break our human spirit. But God knows that we are not beasts of burden, agricultural implements, or rented slaves: we are men. And mark this well, Mr. Barr, we are men locked in a death struggle against man’s inhumanity to man in the industry that you represent. And this struggle itself gives meaning to our life and ennobles our dying.

 

解析

  

在此信的開端部分,Chavez描寫了農場工人的悲慘境遇,地位低下,長期以來被當作奴隸看待,“我們今天的抗爭就是使我們的生命有意義,即使是死了也是高貴的”。作者通過這種使讀者身臨其境的感情描述,不僅表達了自己的立場又使讀者非常好的實現了情感共鳴。

  

例子

  

When human beings are regarded as moral beings, sex, instead of being enthroned upon the summit, administering upon rights and responsibilities, sinks into insignificance and nothingness. My doctrine then is, that whatever it is morally right for man to do, it is morally rights for woman to do. Our duties originate, not from difference of sex, but from the diversity of our relations in life, the various gifts and talents committed to our care, and the different eras in which we live.

  

解析

  

此文中,作者以道德權利的平等喚起女性的共鳴,既然男性morally right to do,那么女性也享有同等的權利。

  

2 、Ethos(appeal to credibility)

  

詞源上來說,ethos源于希臘語詞ethikos, 亞里士多德認為必須在聽眾中建立一種“道德可信度”,也就是moral credibility. 所以要強有力的說服他人,使他人信服文章中作者所提到的內容,就必須提供真實可靠的依據或親身經歷或作者本身一個權威的身份。

  

例子

  

During that period we have increased from four millions to thirty millions of people; we have extended our territory from the Mississippi to the Pacific Ocean; we have acquired the Florida’s and Texas, and other territory sufficient to double our geographical extent; we have increased in population, in wealth, and in power beyond any example on earth; we have risen from a weak and feeble power to become the terror and admiration of the civilized world; and all this has been done under a Constitution which Mr. Lincoln, in substance, says is in violation of the law of God;

  

解析

  

文中作者以美國長時間以來的人口增長、領土擴張以及國家發展這個事實為依據,反對了林肯對現行法律的抨擊,有理有據,建立在credibility之上使聽眾有充分的信服。

  

例子

  

I mentioned it Yesterday to your Excellency as my Opinion, that Excluding the People of the Colonies from all Share in the Choice of the Grand Council would probably give extreme Dissatisfaction, as well as the Taxing them by Act of Parliament where they have no Representative. In Matters of General Concern to the People, and especially where Burthens are to be laid upon them, it is of Use to consider as well what they will be.

  

解析

  

富蘭克林在此文的開篇就直接點明一個事實:殖民地人民在議會中沒有代表就會產生強烈的不滿。基于這個事實,富蘭克林反對了英國對殖民地的專制統治,加之富蘭克林自身在北美早期的影響力,一種天然的credibility就建立起來。

  

3 、Logos(appeal to logic)

  

在蘇格拉底之前,logos表示“對宇宙認識的理論”,后來又表示“對一個論題的詭辯”。現在指的就是“邏輯證明”,當然在文章中就是作者支持論點的邏輯思維是否清晰,演繹和歸納如何,另外也要看是否有正反兩方面的論據等。通常來說,考試中多數文獻文章會出現如下的邏輯結構:

  

        1、Background information(introduction)

  2、Author’s claim and supporting evidence

  3、Concession /Counterclaims

  4、Reiterate/Conclusion

  

同學們從這種“logos”入手相對能更容易的把握文獻的主題.

  

題目

 

?When I so pressingly urge a strict observance of all the laws, let me not be understood as saying there are no bad laws, nor that grievances may not arise, for the redress of which, no legal provisions have been made. I mean to say no such thing. But I do mean to say, that, although bad laws, if they exist, should be repealed as soon as possible, still while they continue in force, for the sake of example, they should be religiously observed.

  

解析

  

文章中林肯提出每個人必須遵守法律這個觀點之后,又做出了一定的讓步, “我并不是說就沒有壞的法律了,冤案就不會出現了,壞的法律存在就應該被廢除”.一定程度的讓步或承認他人觀點的正確性,其實就是為了強調自己觀點的嚴謹性和重要性。

  

“pathos, ethos, logos”這三個維度正是我們理解SAT文獻文章的精髓所在。對文章中作者這種說服方式的洞悉與把握必須建立在長期的訓練與閱讀能力的提高上。文獻文章的突破也不是朝夕之功,需多閱讀,多反思,多補充背景,這不僅對于考試而且對于將來美國大學的學習也大有裨益。

 

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